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Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae Juss. - Spurge Family

1. Acalypha variegata Rusby

LinkFlowers of planted Acalypha variegata(?) with feathery stigmas and white bracts in Al Shamal City Park. Ruwais, Northern Qatar, November 20, 2015
LinkMottled leaves of Acalypha variegata in Dahl Al Hamam Park at Al Markhiya Street. Doha, Qatar, April 26, 2016

2. Acalypha wilkesiana Müll.Arg.

(Acalypha amentacea, Acalypha circinata, Acalypha compacta, Acalypha godseffiana, Acalypha hamiltoniana, Acalypha illustris, Acalypha macafeeana, Acalypha macrophylla, Acalypha marginata, Acalypha musaica, Acalypha torta, Acalypha tricolor, Acalypha triumphans, Ricinocarpus wilkesianus)

My notes: Ornamental plant in parks. Some of plants may be A. variegata that has more green leaves.

Extract from Wikipedia article: Acalypha wilkesiana is an evergreen shrub. It grows 3 m high and spreads 2 m across. The stem is erect with many branches. The branches have fine hairs. It has a closely arranged crown. The leaves are coppery green with red splashes of colour. This gives them a mottled appearance. The leaves are large and broad with teeth around the edge. They can be 10–20 cm long and 15 cm wide. The leaves are finely hairy. They can be flat or crinkled. The flowers are reddish in spikes at the end of branches. They have separate male and female flowers on the same plant. The male flowers are in long spikes which hang downwards while the female flowers are in short spikes. They do not show up easily as they are often hidden among the leaves. The flower stalks are 10–20 cm long.

LinkLeaves of Acalypha wilkesiana planted in Al Shamal City Park. Ruwais, Northern Qatar, December 19, 2015
LinkBlooming Acalypha wilkesiana planted in Al Shamal City Park. Ruwais, Northern Qatar, December 19, 2015
LinkAcalypha wilkesiana plant with reddish leaves shaped as a tree in Al Shamal City Park. Ruwais, Northern Qatar, December 19, 2015
LinkLeaves of Acalypha wilkesiana shaped as a tree in Al Shamal City Park. Ruwais, Northern Qatar, January 16, 2016
LinkAcalypha wilkesiana shaped as a tree in Al Shamal City Park. Ruwais, Northern Qatar, January 16, 2016
LinkBurgundy leaves of Acalypha wilkesiana shaped as a tree in Al Shamal City Park. Ruwais, Northern Qatar, January 16, 2016

3. Chrozophora tinctoria (L.) A.Juss.

(Chrozophora cordifolia, Chrozophora glabrata, Chrozophora hierosolymitana, Chrozophora integrifolia, Chrozophora lepidocarpa, Chrozophora obliqua, Chrozophora sieberi, Chrozophora subplicata, Chrozophora verbascifolia, Chrozophora warionii, Croton argenteus, Croton obliquus, Croton oblongifolius, Croton patulus, Croton tinctorius, Croton verbascifolius, Ricinoides tinctoria, Tournesol obliqua, Tournesol tinctoria, Tournesol verbascifolia, Tournesol warionii)

Common names: dyer's croton, giradol, Tanoom, zerraij, tannom

Extract from Wikipedia article: Chrozophora tinctoria (commonly known as dyer's croton, giradol, or turnsole) is the type species in the genus Chrozophora.

LinkWoolly, staminate flowers of dyer's croton (giradol, Chrozophora tinctoria, local names Tanoom, zerraij, tannom) near a road to Zubara in area of Al Magdah farms in northern Qatar, May 2, 2014
LinkWoolly plant of dyer's croton (giradol, Chrozophora tinctoria, local names Tanoom, zerraij, tannom) near a road to Zubara in area of Al Magdah farms in northern Qatar, May 2, 2014
LinkBlooming dyer's croton (giradol, Chrozophora tinctoria, local names Tanoom, zerraij, tannom) near a road to Zubara in area of Al Magdah farms in northern Qatar, May 2, 2014
LinkDry woolly plant of dyer's croton (giradol, Chrozophora tinctoria) at entrance of Ras Abrouq Peninsula near Zekreet. Qatar, November 14, 2014
LinkWoolly seedlings of dyer's croton (giradol, Chrozophora tinctoria, local names Tanoom, zerraij, tannom) in windblown sand on roadside of Salwa Road in area of Khashem Al Nekhsh. Southern Qatar, March 18, 2016
LinkSmall plant of dyer's croton (giradol, Chrozophora tinctoria, local names Tanoom, zerraij, tannom) in windblown sand on roadside of Salwa Road in area of Khashem Al Nekhsh. Southern Qatar, March 18, 2016
LinkWoolly plant of dyer's croton (giradol, Chrozophora tinctoria, local names Tanoom, zerraij, tannom) in windblown sand on roadside of Salwa Road in area of Khashem Al Nekhsh. Southern Qatar, March 18, 2016
LinkWoolly plant of dyer's croton (giradol, Chrozophora tinctoria, local names Tanoom, zerraij, tannom) on roadside in area of Jebel Al-Nakhsh (Khashm an Nakhsh). South-western Qatar, March 25, 2016
LinkFlowers of dyer's croton (giradol, Chrozophora tinctoria, local names Tanoom, zerraij, tannom) on roadside in area of Jebel Al-Nakhsh (Khashm an Nakhsh). South-western Qatar, March 25, 2016
LinkPlants of dyer's croton (giradol, Chrozophora tinctoria, local names Tanoom, zerraij, tannom) in windblown sand on roadside of Salwa Road in area of Khashem Al Nekhsh. Southern Qatar, April 29, 2016
LinkPlant of dyer's croton (giradol, Chrozophora tinctoria, local names Tanoom, zerraij, tannom) with fruits in windblown sand on roadside of Salwa Road in area of Khashem Al Nekhsh. Southern Qatar, April 29, 2016
LinkBlooming plant of dyer's croton (giradol, Chrozophora tinctoria, local names Tanoom, zerraij, tannom) in windblown sand on roadside of Salwa Road in area of Khashem Al Nekhsh. Southern Qatar, April 29, 2016
LinkDyer's croton (giradol, Chrozophora tinctoria, local names Tanoom, zerraij, tannom) in windblown sand on roadside of Salwa Road in area of Khashem Al Nekhsh. Southern Qatar, April 29, 2016
LinkFruits of Dyer's croton (giradol, Chrozophora tinctoria, local names Tanoom, zerraij, tannom) in windblown sand on roadside of Salwa Road in area of Khashem Al Nekhsh. Southern Qatar, April 29, 2016
LinkFlowers of Dyer's croton (giradol, Chrozophora tinctoria, local names Tanoom, zerraij, tannom) in windblown sand on roadside of Salwa Road in area of Khashem Al Nekhsh. Southern Qatar, April 29, 2016
LinkPlant of dyer's croton (giradol, Chrozophora tinctoria, local names Tanoom, zerraij, tannom) with fruits in windblown sand on roadside of Salwa Road in area of Khashem Al Nekhsh. Southern Qatar, April 29, 2016
LinkPlant of dyer's croton (giradol, Chrozophora tinctoria, local names Tanoom, zerraij, tannom) in windblown sand on roadside in area of Jebel Al-Nakhsh (Khashm an Nakhsh). South-western Qatar, June 10, 2016
LinkHabitat of dyer's croton (giradol, Chrozophora tinctoria, local names Tanoom, zerraij, tannom) in windblown sand on roadside in area of Jebel Al-Nakhsh (Khashm an Nakhsh). South-western Qatar, June 10, 2016
LinkBlooming plant of dyer's croton (giradol, Chrozophora tinctoria, local names Tanoom, zerraij, tannom) in windblown sand on roadside in area of Jebel Al-Nakhsh (Khashm an Nakhsh). South-western Qatar, June 10, 2016
LinkPlants of dyer's croton (giradol, Chrozophora tinctoria, local names Tanoom, zerraij, tannom) in a depression north from Zekreet in Ras Abrouq Peninsula. Qatar, June 24, 2016
LinkDyer's croton (giradol, Chrozophora tinctoria, local names Tanoom, zerraij, tannom) in a depression north from Zekreet in Ras Abrouq Peninsula. Qatar, June 24, 2016
LinkLarge plant of dyer's croton (giradol, Chrozophora tinctoria, local names Tanoom, zerraij, tannom) in a depression north from Zekreet in Ras Abrouq Peninsula. Qatar, June 24, 2016
LinkFlowers of dyer's croton (giradol, Chrozophora tinctoria, local names Tanoom, zerraij, tannom) in a depression north from Zekreet in Ras Abrouq Peninsula. Qatar, June 24, 2016
LinkPlants of dyer's croton (giradol, Chrozophora tinctoria, local names Tanoom, zerraij, tannom) among dry grass in a depression north from Zekreet in Ras Abrouq Peninsula. Qatar, June 24, 2016

4. Euphorbia granulata Forssk.

(Agaloma graminifolia, Anisophyllum granulatum, Chamaesyce granulata, Chamaesyce sistanica, Euphorbia aegyptiaca, Euphorbia arillata, Euphorbia forsskalii, Euphorbia fragilis, Euphorbia kralickii, Euphorbia sistanica, Tithymalus granulatus)

Common names: Euphorbia forsskaolii, Euphorbia turcomanica, lubaina, spurge

LinkProstrate desert spurge Euphorbia granulata (Euphorbia forsskaolii, local name lubaina) near a road to Saudi Arabia in southern Qatar, February 11, 2014
LinkEuphorbia granulata (Euphorbia forsskaolii, Euphorbia turcomanica, local name lubaina) in area of Ras Laffan farms. Northern Qatar, February 28, 2014
LinkEuphorbia granulata (Euphorbia forsskaolii, Euphorbia turcomanica, local name lubaina) growing in silt in area of Ras Laffan farms. Northern Qatar, February 28, 2014
LinkTiny plant of Euphorbia granulata (Euphorbia forsskaolii, Euphorbia turcomanica, local name lubaina) on dry silt in area of Ras Laffan farms. Northern Qatar, February 28, 2014
LinkEuphorbia granulata (Euphorbia forsskaolii, Euphorbia turcomanica, local name lubaina) in sand near Dukhan Road. Western Qatar, March 1, 2014
LinkEuphorbia granulata (Euphorbia forsskaolii, Euphorbia turcomanica, local name lubaina) on roadside of a road to Zubara in area of Al Magdah farms in northern Qatar, May 2, 2014
LinkProstrate desert spurge Euphorbia granulata in a silty depression on roadside of a road to Zubara, area of Al Magdah farms. Northern Qatar, October 24, 2015
LinkProstrate desert spurge Euphorbia granulata (Euphorbia forsskaolii, local name lubaina) in a depression on roadside of a road to Zubara, area of Al Magdah farms. Northern Qatar, November 7, 2015
LinkHub of stems of spurge Euphorbia granulata in a depression on roadside of a road to Zubara, area of Al Magdah farms. Northern Qatar, November 7, 2015
LinkProstrate spurge Euphorbia granulata in a depression on roadside of a road to Zubara, area of Al Magdah farms. Northern Qatar, November 7, 2015

5. Euphorbia heterophylla L.

(Cyathophora heterophyla, Poinsettia heterophylla, Tithymalus heterophyllus)

Common names: bint al qunsul, desert spurge, Japanese poinsettia, Mexican fire plant, milk weed, milkweed, painted euphorbia, painted leaf, painted spurge, paintedleaf, summer poinsettia, various leaved euphorbia, wild poinsettia, wild spurge, yellow spurge

Extract from Wikipedia article: Euphorbia heterophylla, also known under the common names of (Mexican) Fireplant, Painted Euphorbia, Japanese Poinsettia, Desert Poinsettia, Wild Poinsettia, Fire on the Mountain, Paintedleaf, Painted Spurge, Milkweed, and Kaliko Plant, is a plant belonging to the Euphorbiaceae or spurge family.

LinkDesert spurge (summer poinsettia, Euphorbia heterophylla) on Green Circles (center-pivot irrigation) in Irkhaya (Irkaya) Farms. Qatar, March 14, 2015
LinkCarpet of desert spurge (summer poinsettia, Euphorbia heterophylla) on Green Circles (center-pivot irrigation) in Irkhaya (Irkaya) Farms. Qatar, March 14, 2015
LinkPlants of desert spurge (summer poinsettia, Euphorbia heterophylla) on Green Circles (center-pivot irrigation) in Irkhaya (Irkaya) Farms. Qatar, March 14, 2015
LinkYellow garden spider (Argiope aurantia(?)) on desert spurge (summer poinsettia, Euphorbia heterophylla) on Green Circles (center-pivot irrigation) in Irkhaya (Irkaya) Farms. Qatar, March 14, 2015
LinkDense infestation by desert spurge (summer poinsettia, Euphorbia heterophylla) on Green Circles (center-pivot irrigation) in Irkhaya (Irkaya) Farms. Qatar, March 14, 2015
LinkDesert spurge (summer poinsettia, Euphorbia heterophylla) in dew on Green Circles (center-pivot irrigation) in Irkhaya (Irkaya) Farms. Qatar, March 14, 2015
LinkFruits of desert spurge (summer poinsettia, Euphorbia heterophylla) in dew on Green Circles (center-pivot irrigation) in Irkhaya (Irkaya) Farms. Qatar, March 14, 2015
LinkFlowers of desert spurge (summer poinsettia, Euphorbia heterophylla) on Green Circles (center-pivot irrigation) in Irkhaya (Irkaya) Farms. Qatar, March 14, 2015
LinkClose up of fruits of desert spurge (summer poinsettia, Euphorbia heterophylla) in dew on Green Circles (center-pivot irrigation) in Irkhaya (Irkaya) Farms. Qatar, March 14, 2015
LinkBack lit desert spurge (summer poinsettia, Euphorbia heterophylla) in dew on Green Circles (center-pivot irrigation) in Irkhaya (Irkaya) Farms. Qatar, March 14, 2015
LinkDesert spurge (summer poinsettia, Euphorbia heterophylla) with fruits on Green Circles (center-pivot irrigation) in Irkhaya (Irkaya) Farms. Qatar, March 14, 2015
LinkDesert spurge (summer poinsettia, Euphorbia heterophylla) with flowers on Green Circles (center-pivot irrigation) in Irkhaya (Irkaya) Farms. Qatar, March 14, 2015
LinkBack lit desert spurge (summer poinsettia, Euphorbia heterophylla) with fruits in dew on Green Circles (center-pivot irrigation) in Irkhaya (Irkaya) Farms. Qatar, March 14, 2015
LinkDesert spurge (summer poinsettia, Euphorbia heterophylla) with fruits in dew on Green Circles (center-pivot irrigation) in Irkhaya (Irkaya) Farms. Qatar, March 14, 2015
LinkInvasive desert spurge (summer poinsettia, Euphorbia heterophylla) on Green Circles (center-pivot irrigation) in Irkhaya (Irkaya) Farms. Qatar, June 5, 2015
LinkCarpet of desert spurge (summer poinsettia, Euphorbia heterophylla) on Green Circles (center-pivot irrigation) in Irkhaya (Irkaya) Farms. Qatar, June 5, 2015
LinkInvasive plants of desert spurge (summer poinsettia, Euphorbia heterophylla) on Green Circles (center-pivot irrigation) in Irkhaya (Irkaya) Farms. Qatar, June 5, 2015
LinkFruits of desert spurge (summer poinsettia, Euphorbia heterophylla) on Green Circles (center-pivot irrigation) in Irkhaya (Irkaya) Farms. Qatar, June 5, 2015
LinkBack lit fruits of desert spurge (summer poinsettia, Euphorbia heterophylla) taken from Green Circles (center-pivot irrigation) in Irkhaya (Irkaya) Farms. Qatar, June 5, 2015
LinkInflorescence of desert spurge (summer poinsettia, Euphorbia heterophylla) taken from Green Circles (center-pivot irrigation) in Irkhaya (Irkaya) Farms. Qatar, June 5, 2015
LinkDesert spurge (summer poinsettia, Euphorbia heterophylla) with back lit leaves taken from Green Circles (center-pivot irrigation) in Irkhaya (Irkaya) Farms. Qatar, June 5, 2015
LinkInfestation by desert spurge (summer poinsettia, Euphorbia heterophylla) on Green Circles (center-pivot irrigation) in Irkhaya (Irkaya) Farms. Qatar, August 21, 2015
LinkFruits of desert spurge (summer poinsettia, Euphorbia heterophylla) on Green Circles (center-pivot irrigation) in Irkhaya (Irkaya) Farms. Qatar, October 9, 2015
LinkSmall green caterpillar on Desert spurge (summer poinsettia, Euphorbia heterophylla) on Green Circles (center-pivot irrigation) in Irkhaya (Irkaya) Farms. Qatar, November 13, 2015
LinkFlower buds of desert spurge (summer poinsettia, Euphorbia heterophylla) on Green Circles (center-pivot irrigation) in Irkhaya (Irkaya) Farms. Qatar, December 18, 2015
LinkMasses of invasive desert spurge (summer poinsettia, Euphorbia heterophylla) on Green Circles (center-pivot irrigation) in Irkhaya (Irkaya) Farms. Qatar, June 3, 2016

6. Euphorbia hirta L.

(Chamaesyce gemella, Chamaesyce hirta, Chamaesyce karwinskyi, Chamaesyce pekinensis, Chamaesyce pilulifera, Chamaesyce rosei, Desmonema hirta, Ditritea hirta, Euphorbia bancana, Euphorbia capitata, Euphorbia chrysochaeta, Euphorbia gemella, Euphorbia globulifera, Euphorbia karwinskyi, Euphorbia nodiflora, Euphorbia obliterata, Euphorbia pilulifera, Euphorbia verticillata)

Common names: spurge, umm lubaina

Extract from Wikipedia article: Euphorbia hirta is a pantropical weed, possibly native to India. It is a hairy herb that grows in open grasslands, roadsides and pathways. It is widely used as a medicinal herb in most places it grows.

LinkEuphorbia hirta (Chamaesyce hirta, local name umm lubaina) in Abal Faham Family Park. Al Jumayliyah, Western Qatar, March 1, 2014
LinkPetty spurge (Euphorbia peplus) growing together with Euphorbia hirta on roadside of Al Sham Street in area of West Bay. Doha, Qatar, April 16, 2014
LinkEuphorbia hirta (Chamaesyce hirta, local name umm lubaina) found in area of Al Sham Street in West Bay. Doha, Qatar, August 30, 2014
LinkEuphorbia hirta (Chamaesyce hirta, local name umm lubaina) with flowers found in area of Al Sham Street in West Bay. Doha, Qatar, August 30, 2014
LinkEuphorbia hirta on sidewalk pavement of Al Wosail Street in Onaiza area. Doha, Qatar, April 8, 2015

7. Euphorbia hypericifolia L.

(Anisophyllum hypericifolium, Chamaesyce boliviana, Chamaesyce glomerifera, Chamaesyce hypericifolia, Ditritea obliqua, Euphorbia boliviana, Euphorbia cuspidata, Euphorbia glomerifera, Euphorbia papilligera)

Common names: Graceful Sandmat

My notes: Some of plants look like Euphorbia arabica.

LinkGraceful Sandmat (spurge, Euphorbia hypericifolia) taken from area of Al Istiqlal Street in West Bay. Doha, Qatar, May 1, 2014
LinkClose up of Graceful Sandmat (spurge, Euphorbia hypericifolia) taken from area of Al Istiqlal Street in West Bay. Doha, Qatar, May 1, 2014
LinkGraceful Sandmat (spurge, Euphorbia hypericifolia) on Meshrif Street near West Bay. Doha, Qatar, May 11, 2014
LinkShoot of Graceful Sandmat (spurge, Euphorbia hypericifolia) taken from Meshrif Street near West Bay. Doha, Qatar, May 11, 2014
LinkGraceful Sandmat (spurge, Euphorbia hypericifolia) growing near stone wall on Meshrif Street near West Bay. Doha, Qatar, August 23, 2014
LinkGraceful Sandmat (spurge, Euphorbia hypericifolia) taken from Onanza area near West Bay. Doha, Qatar, January 5, 2015
LinkGraceful Sandmat (spurge, Euphorbia hypericifolia) on Al Jood Street in Onaiza area. Doha, Qatar, June 17, 2015
LinkNarrow-leaf form of Graceful Sandmat spurge (Euphorbia hypericifolia) on Al Intisar Street in Onaiza area. Doha, Qatar, February 23, 2016
LinkShoot of narrow-leaf form of Graceful Sandmat spurge (Euphorbia hypericifolia) on Al Intisar Street in Onaiza area. Doha, Qatar, February 23, 2016
LinkNarrow-leaf form of Graceful Sandmat spurge (Euphorbia hypericifolia) on sidewalk on Al Intisar Street in Onaiza area. Doha, Qatar, February 23, 2016
LinkFlowers of narrow-leaf form of Graceful Sandmat spurge (Euphorbia hypericifolia) taken from sidewalk of Al Intisar Street in Onaiza area. Doha, Qatar, February 23, 2016
LinkBranch of narrow-leaf form of Graceful Sandmat spurge (Euphorbia hypericifolia) taken from sidewalk of Al Intisar Street in Onaiza area. Doha, Qatar, February 23, 2016
LinkBranch of narrow-leaf form of Graceful Sandmat spurge (Euphorbia hypericifolia) with fruits taken from sidewalk of Al Intisar Street in Onaiza area. Doha, Qatar, February 23, 2016
LinkGraceful sandmat (spurge, Euphorbia hypericifolia) taken from Onaiza area. Doha, Qatar, April 18, 2016

8. Euphorbia milii Des Moul.

(Euphorbia bojeri, Euphorbia breonii, Euphorbia rubrostriata, Euphorbia splendens, Sterigmanthe bojeri, Tumalis bojeri)

Common names: crown of thorns

Extract from Wikipedia article: Euphorbia milii (crown of thorns, Christ plant, Christ thorn) is a species of flowering plant in the spurge family Euphorbiaciae, native to Madagascar. The species name commemorates Baron Milius, once Governor of Réunion, who introduced the species to France in 1821. It is suspected that the species was introduced to the Middle East in ancient times, and legend associates it with the crown of thorns worn by Christ.

LinkFlowerbed with crown of thorns plant (Euphorbia milii, Euphorbia splendens) on Corniche Promenade. Doha, Qatar, February 27, 2014
LinkCrown of thorns plant (Euphorbia milii, Euphorbia splendens) in Al Shamal City Park. Ruwais, Northern Qatar, April 3, 2015
LinkCrown of thorns (Euphorbia milii, Euphorbia splendens) planted in Al Shamal City Park. Ruwais, Northern Qatar, November 20, 2015
LinkCrown of thorns (Euphorbia milii, Euphorbia splendens, large blooms type) in a park at Al Rafiei Street in Onaiza area. Doha, Qatar, February 16, 2016

9. Euphorbia peplus L.

(Esula peplus, Euphorbion peplum, Galarhoeus peplus, Keraselma peplus, Tithymalus peplus)

Common names: Petty Spurge

Extract from Wikipedia article: Euphorbia peplus (petty spurge, radium weed, cancer weed, or milkweed) is a species of Euphorbia, native to most of Europe, northern Africa, and western Asia, where it typically grows in cultivated arable land, gardens, and other disturbed land.

LinkPetty spurge (Euphorbia peplus) growing together with Euphorbia hirta on roadside of Al Sham Street in area of West Bay. Doha, Qatar, April 16, 2014
LinkPetty spurge (Euphorbia peplus) taken from a roadside of Al Sham Street in area of West Bay. Doha, Qatar, April 16, 2014
LinkClose up of petty spurge (Euphorbia peplus) taken from a roadside of Al Sham Street in area of West Bay. Doha, Qatar, April 16, 2014
LinkPetty spurge (Euphorbia peplus) with fruits taken from a roadside of Al Sham Street in area of West Bay. Doha, Qatar, April 16, 2014
LinkPetty spurge (Euphorbia peplus) taken from Al Jood Street in Onaiza area (under palms). Doha, Qatar, April 7, 2015
LinkPetty spurge (Euphorbia peplus) taken from Al Jood Street in Onaiza area, with black background. Doha, Qatar, April 7, 2015
LinkPetty spurge (Euphorbia peplus) taken from southern Al Jood Street in Onaiza area (under palms). Doha, Qatar, April 7, 2015
LinkPetty spurge (Euphorbia peplus) growing under a palm tree on Al Intisar Street in Onaiza area. Doha, Qatar, February 3, 2016

10. Euphorbia prostrata Aiton

(Anisophyllum prostratum, Aplarina prostrata, Chamaesyce malaca, Chamaesyce prostrata, Chamaesyce villosior, Euphorbia callitrichoides, Euphorbia malaca, Euphorbia perforata, Euphorbia ramosa, Euphorbia tenella, Euphorbia trichogona, Tithymalus prostratus)

Common names: lubaina, spurge

Extract from Wikipedia article: Euphorbia prostrata is a species of euphorb known by the common name prostrate sandmat. It is native to the West Indies and certain parts of South America, but it is widely naturalized in many other parts of the world, where it can be found in varied habitat types and in many areas grows as a roadside weed. This is an annual herb producing slender prostrate stems up to about 20 centimeters long, sometimes purple-tinted in color. The oval-shaped leaves are up to a centimeter long with finely toothed edges. The inflorescence is a cyathium less than 2 millimeters wide, with white petal-like appendages surrounding the actual flowers. There are four male flowers and a single female flower, the latter developing into a lobed, hairy fruit one to two millimeters wide.

LinkGreen mat of spurge (Euphorbia prostrata or may be serpens) near Omar Al Mukhtar Street in West Bay. Doha, Qatar, March 22, 2014
LinkRed leaves of spurge (Euphorbia prostrata or may be serpens) near Omar Al Mukhtar Street in West Bay. Doha, Qatar, March 22, 2014
LinkShoot of spurge (Euphorbia prostrata or may be serpens) near Omar Al Mukhtar Street in West Bay. Doha, Qatar, March 22, 2014
LinkGreen blanket of Euphorbia prostrata or may be Euphorbia serpens (local name lubaina) in Irkhaya Farms. South-western Qatar, March 29, 2014
LinkWilted spurge (Euphorbia prostrata) on Al Istiqlal Street in West Bay. Doha, Qatar, May 5, 2014
LinkSpurge (Euphorbia prostrata or may be Euphorbia serpens) taken from area of Dunes Hotel in West Bay. Doha, Qatar, May 10, 2014
LinkMat of spurge Euphorbia prostrata on Green Circles (center-pivot irrigation) in Irkhaya (Irkaya) Farms. South-western Qatar, October 25, 2014
LinkKhaki Burr weed (Alternanthera pungens) and spurge Euphorbia prostrata on Green Circles (center-pivot irrigation) in Irkhaya (Irkaya) Farms. South-western Qatar, October 25, 2014
LinkPinkish leaves of spurge Euphorbia prostrata on Green Circles (center-pivot irrigation) in Irkhaya (Irkaya) Farms. South-western Qatar, October 25, 2014
LinkReichardia seedling among a mat of spurge (Euphorbia prostrata) on Green Circles (center-pivot irrigation) in Irkhaya (Irkaya) Farms. South-western Qatar, November 15, 2014
LinkBrilliant red leaves of spurge Euphorbia prostrata on Green Circles (center-pivot irrigation) in Irkhaya (Irkaya) Farms. South-western Qatar, November 15, 2014
LinkReddish leaves of spurge Euphorbia prostrata on Green Circles (center-pivot irrigation) in Irkhaya (Irkaya) Farms. South-western Qatar, November 15, 2014
LinkMat of spurge (Euphorbia prostrata or may be serpens) in a silty depression in Al Nuaman (Naim tribe, Nuaimiya) near Zubara. Northern Qatar, March 28, 2015
LinkSpurge (Euphorbia prostrata) on a field on Green Circles (center-pivot irrigation) in Irkhaya (Irkaya) Farms. Qatar, April 10, 2015
LinkSpurge (Euphorbia prostrata) on Green Circles (center-pivot irrigation) in Irkhaya (Irkaya) Farms. Qatar, May 1, 2015
LinkMat of spurge Euphorbia prostrata in roadside depression near Dukhan Highway. Qatar, January 15, 2016

11. Euphorbia retusa Forssk.

(Esula retusa, Euphorbia cornuta, Euphorbia kahirensis, Euphorbia linearis, Tithymalus cornutus, Tithymalus cristatus, Tithymalus retusus)

LinkRare spurge Euphorbia retusa in a large roadside depression near Route 77 to Ras Laffan. Qatar, February 6, 2016
LinkRare spurge Euphorbia retusa on gravel soil in a large roadside depression near Route 77 to Ras Laffan. Qatar, February 6, 2016
LinkSpurge Euphorbia retusa with flowers in a large roadside depression near Route 77 to Ras Laffan. Qatar, February 6, 2016
LinkSpurge Euphorbia retusa with flowers on gravel soil in a large roadside depression near Route 77 to Ras Laffan. Qatar, February 6, 2016
LinkSpurge Euphorbia retusa in a large roadside depression near Route 77 to Ras Laffan. Qatar, February 6, 2016
LinkWide angle view of a rare spurge Euphorbia retusa in a large roadside depression near Route 77 to Ras Laffan. Qatar, February 6, 2016
LinkHabitat of a rare spurge Euphorbia retusa in a large roadside depression near Route 77 to Ras Laffan. Qatar, February 6, 2016
LinkWide angle view of a rare plant Euphorbia retusa on gravel soil in a large roadside depression near Route 77 to Ras Laffan. Qatar, February 6, 2016
LinkWide angle view of a blooming spurge Euphorbia retusa in a large roadside depression near Route 77 to Ras Laffan. Qatar, February 6, 2016
LinkUpper view of a blooming rare spurge Euphorbia retusa in a large roadside depression near Route 77 to Ras Laffan. Qatar, February 6, 2016
LinkLeaves of rare spurge Euphorbia retusa in a large roadside depression near Route 77 to Ras Laffan. Qatar, February 6, 2016
LinkFlowers of rare spurge Euphorbia retusa in a large roadside depression near Route 77 to Ras Laffan. Qatar, February 6, 2016
LinkFlowers and fruits of spurge Euphorbia retusa in a large roadside depression near Route 77 to Ras Laffan. Qatar, February 6, 2016
LinkClose up of flowers of spurge Euphorbia retusa in a large roadside depression near Route 77 to Ras Laffan. Qatar, February 6, 2016
LinkClose up of flowers and fruits of spurge Euphorbia retusa in a large roadside depression near Route 77 to Ras Laffan. Qatar, February 6, 2016
LinkInflorescence of spurge Euphorbia retusa taken from a large roadside depression near Route 77 to Ras Laffan. Qatar, February 6, 2016
LinkClose up of flowers and a fruit of spurge Euphorbia retusa taken from a large roadside depression near Route 77 to Ras Laffan. Qatar, February 6, 2016
LinkSpurge Euphorbia retusa with fruits in a roadside depression near Route 77 to Ras Laffan. Qatar, April 16, 2016
LinkSpurge Euphorbia retusa with fruits taken from a roadside depression near Route 77 to Ras Laffan. Qatar, April 16, 2016
LinkFruits of spurge Euphorbia retusa with fruits taken from a roadside depression near Route 77 to Ras Laffan. Qatar, April 16, 2016

12. Euphorbia tirucalli L.

(Arthrothamnus bergii, Arthrothamnus ecklonii, Arthrothamnus tirucalli, Euphorbia geayi, Euphorbia laro, Euphorbia media, Euphorbia rhipsaloides, Euphorbia scoparia, Euphorbia suareziana, Euphorbia viminalis, Tirucalia indica, Tirucalia tirucalli)

Common names: Pencil tree

Extract from Wikipedia article: Euphorbia tirucalli (also known as aveloz, firestick plants, Indian tree spurge, naked lady, pencil tree, pencil cactus, sticks on fire or milk bush) (Sanskrit: सप्तला saptala, सातला satala,Marathi : sher-kandvel शेर-कांडवेल) is a shrub that grows in semi-arid tropical climates.

LinkShoots of Pencil tree (Euphorbia tirucalli) in abandoned gardens in area of Ras Laffan farms. North-eastern Qatar, February 19, 2016
LinkPencil tree (Euphorbia tirucalli) in abandoned gardens in area of Ras Laffan farms. North-eastern Qatar, February 19, 2016
LinkBase of Pencil tree (Euphorbia tirucalli) in abandoned gardens in area of Ras Laffan farms. North-eastern Qatar, February 19, 2016
LinkPencil tree (Euphorbia tirucalli) in a park at Al Meshrif Street in Onaiza area. Doha, Qatar, May 29, 2016

13. Jatropha gossypiifolia L.

(Adenoropium gossypiifolium, Adenoropium jacquinii, Jatropha elegans, Jatropha jacquinii, Jatropha staphysagriifolia, Manihot gossypiifolia)

Common names: bellyache bush, cotton leaf, black physicnut, Sibidigua, Tua-Tua

Extract from Wikipedia article: Jatropha gossypiifolia, commonly known as bellyache bush, black physicnut or cotton-leaf physicnut, is a species of flowering plant in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae. The species is native to Mexico, South America, Gujarat State India and the Caribbean islands. It is a declared noxious weed in Puerto Rico and is naturalised in northern Australia, including Queensland where it is listed as a Class 2 declared pest plant. It grows to 2.5–4 m (8.2–13.1 ft) high. The three lobed leaves are purple and sticky when young and become bright green with age. The small red flowers with yellow centres appear in clusters. These are followed by cherry-sized seed pods that are poisonous. Powdery mildew fungal disease was reported.

LinkBellyache bush (Jatropha gossypiifolia) in Dahl Al Hamam Park at Al Markhiya Street. Doha, Qatar, April 12, 2016
LinkDark leaves of bellyache bush (Jatropha gossypiifolia) in Dahl Al Hamam Park at Al Markhiya Street. Doha, Qatar, April 12, 2016
LinkFruits and flowers of bellyache bush (Jatropha gossypiifolia) in Dahl Al Hamam Park at Al Markhiya Street. Doha, Qatar, April 12, 2016

14. Jatropha integerrima Jacq.

(Adenoropium hastatum, Adenoropium integerrimum, Adenoropium pandurifolium, Jatropha acuminata, Jatropha coccinea, Jatropha diversifolia, Jatropha hastata, Jatropha moluensis, Jatropha pandurifolia)

Extract from Wikipedia article: Jatropha integerrima, commonly known as Peregrina or Spicy Jatropha, is a species of flowering plant in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae, that is native to Cuba and Hispaniola.

LinkJatropha integerrima(?) in area of Al Sham Street in West Bay. Doha, Qatar, September 6, 2014
LinkJatropha integerrima on dead end on Al Khair Street in Lejbailat area. Doha, Qatar, April 1, 2015
LinkRed flowers of Jatropha integerrima on United Nations Street in Onaiza area. Doha, Qatar, May 4, 2015
LinkRed flowers of Jatropha integerrima with a bee on United Nations Street in Onaiza area. Doha, Qatar, May 4, 2015
LinkInflorescense of Jatropha integerrima on United Nations Street in Onaiza area. Doha, Qatar, May 4, 2015
LinkBlooming Jatropha integerrima on United Nations Street in Onaiza area. Doha, Qatar, May 4, 2015
LinkJatropha integerrima on United Nations Street in Onaiza area. Doha, Qatar, August 31, 2015
LinkJatropha integerrima planted in gardens of Sheraton Hotel in West Bay. Doha, Qatar, January 26, 2016
LinkRed petals of Jatropha integerrima in a park at Al Rafiei Street in Onaiza area. Doha, Qatar, February 16, 2016
LinkJatropha integerrima in a park at Al Rafiei Street in Onaiza area. Doha, Qatar, April 24, 2016
LinkPetals of Jatropha integerrima in a park at Al Rafiei Street in Onaiza area. Doha, Qatar, April 27, 2016
LinkJatropha integerrima in a park at Al Meshrif Street in Onaiza area. Doha, Qatar, May 29, 2016

15. Ricinus communis L.

(Cataputia major, Cataputia minor, Croton spinosus, Ricinus africanus, Ricinus angulatus, Ricinus armatus, Ricinus atropurpureus, Ricinus badius, Ricinus borboniensis, Ricinus cambodgensis, Ricinus compactus, Ricinus digitatus, Ricinus europaeus, Ricinus gibsonii, Ricinus giganteus, Ricinus glaucus, Ricinus hybridus, Ricinus inermis, Ricinus japonicus, Ricinus krappa, Ricinus laevis, Ricinus leucocarpus, Ricinus lividus, Ricinus macrocarpus, Ricinus macrophyllus, Ricinus medicus, Ricinus medius, Ricinus megalosperma, Ricinus messeniacus, Ricinus metallicus, Ricinus microcarpus, Ricinus minor, Ricinus nanus, Ricinus obermannii, Ricinus peltatus, Ricinus perennis, Ricinus persicus, Ricinus purpurascens, Ricinus ruber, Ricinus rugosus, Ricinus rutilans, Ricinus sanguineus, Ricinus scaber, Ricinus speciosus, Ricinus spectabilis, Ricinus tunisensis, Ricinus undulatus, Ricinus urens, Ricinus viridis, Ricinus vulgaris, Ricinus zanzibarensis, Ricinus zanzibarinus)

Common names: Castor-oil Plant, kharwaa, khirwi

Extract from Wikipedia article: The castor oil plant (Ricinus communis) is a species of flowering plant in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae. It belongs to a monotypic genus, Ricinus, and subtribe, Ricininae. The evolution of castor and its relation to other species are currently being studied using modern genetic tools.

LinkCastor-oil Plant (Ricinus communis) on Al Nada Street in Al Doha Al Jadeeda area. Doha, Qatar, March 21, 2014

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Acknowledgements

QNHG (Qatar Natural History Group) and associated people, for a possibility to participate in their field excursions and to learn about local nature.